Teacher as Respecter of Learner Differences


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Moderator: So thank you again for joining today’s Kent State University Master of Music in Music Education webinar. So we have Beatrice Olesko and Kristin Coen-Mishlan, who are graduate assistants at Kent State and also graduates from the master’s program. And they will be taking us through Teacher of Respecter of Learner Differences.

We also have Michelle Rodriguez, your dedicated enrollment advisor on the line, and I’m your moderator Annie Li. …

So before we get started I would like to review a few housekeeping items, and to get you familiar with the presentation dashboard.
So on the left of your screen, or of your slides where [No sound] is displaying you should see two windows. One is the Q&A box. And the Q&A window is an important feature as this is where you will submit any program questions, or any questions for Beatrice and Kristin throughout the presentation, and we will address these questions at the very end.

And also if you have any technical issues, this is – the Q&A box is also where you can submit them, and I will help troubleshoot with you offline.
Now the other box that is on your left is the resource list window, and right now we have the program brochure and also graduate outcomes in case you’d like more information on the master’s program.

And at the very bottom of your screen you will see a number of buttons, and there are many – they’re mostly for if and when you have minimized any windows by accident and so that you can retrieve them from here. So to note, the far right button leads you [unintelligible 00:01:58] to book a telephone appointment with Michelle, and you can do so at any time.

And now that everyone is familiar with their presentation platform, we can begin the webinar.

Beatrice: Okay. Well hello everybody, this is Beatrice speaking, and as you can see on your screen, I graduated from the master of music in music education online program in 2012. Before getting my master’s at Kent I obtained my undergraduate degree in music education from Mount Union College in Ohio, which is now called the University of Mount Union. And from there I began teaching K through 4 elementary music in a rural district in Ohio, and then eventually after my master’s work began my PhD in music education at Kent State University, where I was fortunate enough to meet Kristin.

Kristin: Hello everyone. My name is Kristin Coen-Mishlan. I was a band director for eight years in a small rural school in southern Ohio. My undergraduate degree is from the University of Rio Grande in southern Ohio, and while I was working as a band director I got my master’s for music – master’s in music education from Kent State University, and it took me about two years to complete, and I enjoyed it so much that I decided to pursue music education at the doctoral level.

Beatrice: So today Kristin and I are very excited to talk to you about the role of a teacher as a respecter of learner differences. We’re going to talk to you about many different ways you can respect the differences amongst the learners in your classroom. Some of which are generally applicable, but mostly we’ll be focussing specifically on music education, of course.

We’re going to take you through some general ideas and also address some theories and philosophers who have influenced these ideas because as master students or potential master students you’ll be doing research and need to ground a lot of the things you write in theory. So we want to introduce you to some key names, but then mainly focus on pedagogical ideas and things that we hope you would consider using in your classroom.

So as you can see here, if you’re not familiar with the platform, the presentation online platform, Prezi, at all, Kristin and I originally made this presentation into a Prezi for another venue. And so Kristin was able to download all of our animated slides into a PowerPoint for you today. So as you can see – as you will see I should say, it will be zooming in and out on different parts of the screen. So that will make a little more sense to you if you are familiar with Prezi. If not, that’s okay.

So you can see on the screen here we’ve got some keys and a lock, and a pathway to get from one to the other. And so for the green key, the third one down, we’ll zoom in there, we are starting with successful teaching. And so this is what we’re all aiming to do in our classrooms: to teach for success. We’re hoping to accomplish the goals that we want. And so you already know that successful teaching involves many, many different components. Some of these we’ve listed here.

You need to have great knowledge of your content. In our case we need to have developed our personal musicianship, so we are able to be appropriate musical models for our students in our classroom. We need to give appropriate attention to preparation and planning in order to successfully teach, and make sure we’ve set goals ahead of time and so we can lay out lessons and other things to meet these goals that we have previously planned.

We also need to have great pedagogical knowledge. We need to know how to reach our students and how to teach them in a way that will allow them to accomplish our goals. We need to have great classroom management skills, and how about caring and safe learning environment that is conducive to learning for our students.

And teachers, in order to be success, need to have a heightened sense of self-efficacy that they feel what they’re doing is important and that they feel they can accomplish the things that they’re setting out to do.

Now if we go back to our big map here, you can see on our [dig 00:06:51] map here, you can see that that green key where successful teaching is, has a little path coming out of it over to a lock, which is our goal. Zooming in there we can see that the goal is student achievement, and it would be great if going from successful teaching to student achievement was just a straight line, right? Oh, we put in all this work of our teaching, it’s going to be successful and therefore our students are going to achieve. And so if they are going to achieve it can look like measurable knowledge of content.

Now we can debate the merits of different kinds of assessment at length, but whatever your assessment practice is at your school, having some sort of measurable outcome for the knowledge of the content that your students possess is important for achievement. We want them to demonstrate appropriate skill growth. And – oh, it went away. There we go – no – oh my. It’s clicking along. Let’s try to go back here. There we go.

We want students to be able to grow in their skills appropriately for their age level. We want them to be able to transfer knowledge to other areas. So while working on one aspect of musicianship we’re hoping that they can transfer that to other things in our classroom, or hopefully things outside of the classroom too.

We want the students to be able to connect what they’re learning in our classrooms to their own life experience, so it has practical value for them. And then of course, especially in music, we want our students to have motivation to move forward. We want them to be able to continue with music and to want to continue with music, whether in school ensembles or later in life.

So as I was saying previously, it would be great if that line from successful teaching to student achievement was a straight line and you knew that if you prepared correctly your students would achieve, but as you can see on our little graphic here, it’s not. It’s full of twists and turns and there are all kinds of that can get in the way of successful teaching leading to student achievement.

Well some of the things that can come up on this journey to helping our students grow and achieve are personal factors, of course. Students in our class might have exceptionalities that need to be accommodated in our classroom, and as teachers we have to do our best to meet the needs of students with challenges, whether they be learning or physical or of any kind of nature, we need to meet those and accommodate them in our classroom.

Our students’ health, of course, can get in the way of achieving. Something chronic of course, but also even just on a daily basis, not feeling well in the classroom really hampers their ability and motivation to achieve. As we know as teachers our students’ home lives can definitely get in the way of their achievement in the classroom.

And finally motivation or interest in the subject matter is something else that could happen.

But aside from personal factors, today what Kristin are really going to focus on are the three conflicts posted below. There could be a conflict between the teacher and the learner’s prior experiences. The teacher and learner might be coming from two totally sets of backgrounds, and so the frame of reference that the teacher is using to convey the information may not make sense to the student and therefore hamper his or her ability to achieve in a way the teacher is hoping.

The learner’s needs and the teaching methods might be at conflict with each other. So a learner might have specific things that he or she needs in order to achieve in the classroom, and the teacher’s method may not meet those needs.

And finally the learner skills and the teacher expectations may not match. This could be true if the learner’s skill level is far below what is expected by the teacher, or the other way around, if the teacher is teaching far below the skill level of the student they will get bored and not necessarily be able to achieve very well in the classroom.

Okay, and the first topic we’re going to take a look at is considering their experiences and their background, and in order to be sensitive to learner differences, our instruction should connect to prior experience, be culturally relevant, and be practical for experiences later on in life.

And the first philosopher that we’re going to take a look at is Geneva Gay and I’m having problems going to the next [unintelligible 00:11:47]. Let me go back one. There we go. Okay.

Geneva Gay is best known for her culturally responsive teaching, for her work culturally responsive teaching, which became a physical text, and she says that we can respect learner differences through culturally responsive teaching which she defines as using cultural knowledge plus your experiences, frames of reference and performance styles of ethnically diverse students to make learning encounters more relevant and effective for them. She further explains that learning paths presented in relatable context will help develop personal meaning giving students an internal understanding of the content. They become more interested because they can relate to the content, and thus the content can be more easily learned.

So the next philosopher is a German philosopher, psychologist and founder of pedagogy, Johann Herbart, and he was the founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline actually. And he was interested in how we present information in a way that will make learners interested. And he also expanded on this term apperception which was originally Leibniz’s term. But it was an integral part of his theory and his apperception in his context means the relationship between what is already known and new information and assimilating it with prior knowledge.

The content we deliver to students has some sort of correlation from prior knowledge to what is being learned, and new ideas that either contrast or correlate with prior knowledge.

And I think this is important that … I speak a little bit about my experience, I was a band director in southern Ohio for eight years, and it was a very rural area, and fortunately I was also from a rural area so I was able to connect to my students culturally at that level and relate to their families and community. Now, not everyone can relate to this story and you may come from different backgrounds, but it’s important to understand that culture and the process of relating to your students.

The next … philosopher we’re going to talk about, she was actually an Italian psychologist, and her name is Maria Montessori, and you might be familiar with some of the Montessori schools that have been popping up in the United States, especially here in northeastern Ohio there have been quite a few. And Maria Montessori says that we should follow the child and that there’s a natural development that guides the instruction and their ability, their initiative and especially learning through play. Lessons are administered through guided choice, and when the child is ready to learn is when the child begins learning, and that instruction happens individually in small groups, not collective, so this means there might be students of different age levels in each grade per se.

And in this type of spreading the teacher acts as a facilitator to prepare the child for independence and function in the community and has a heavy sense of [unintelligible 00:15:30] and focus on the sense [No sound]

… Person that we can’t forget about is John Dewey in teaching pragmatically, and he felt that education should be pragmatic and be practical for later experiences and serve the child to prepare them for society. And he also thought that cultural background can shape and influence society and that that’s how society could change. He was very forward thinking and he felt that we needed to look forward and that we are not able to measure education through standards because they are from the past, and therefore do not reflect current cultural considerations in education. And that quote actually sounds really familiar because this is actually something that was written quite a few years ago, probably a hundred years ago, and it’s still a topic of discussion in education today.

So to sum up these philosophers that we just talked about considering learner experiences and background, all of these philosophers use all of these ideas even if they had different points of emphasis, but Herbart’s point of emphasis was connecting to prior experience. Geneva Gay said that the content should be culturally relevant. Montessori considered the development of the child, and Dewey said that the content should be practical for later on in life. And it is interesting that Herbart wrote this 200 years ago and followed by Dewey and then Geneva Gay is actually a fairly recent philosopher in this area.

Beatrice: Yes, and so it’s very interesting that they have common ideas and ideas that intersect, even though they’re from different countries and different points in history, and so that theoretical background is incredibly interesting, thank you Kristin.

Now we wanted to – now that we’ve talked about how we need to consider our students’ experience and background when we’re teaching as one way that we can respect differences amongst the learners in our classroom, we’re going to move on to some instructional ideas. And so other ways that we can respect the differences amongst the learners in our class is by varying our instructional technique.

And so we’re going to talk about two specific people and their ideas here, the first being Robert Sternberg who is also a psychologist, and among many of his ideas, the one that stands out and is relevant for us today is his theory of successful intelligence. And Sternberg surmised that teachers teach primarily in one way. They teach from memory learning, which is the first of the four you can see displayed there on your screen. This is how teachers spend most of their time, in his opinion teaching students to memorize certain facts or processes and things like that.

And his idea was that teachers need to vary their instruction using four different strategies rather than just primarily relying on memory. He said teachers need to incorporate analytical learning, creative learning and practical learning as well in order to achieve successful intelligence.

And so in the music class [unintelligible 00:19:12] this is something that a lot of teachers do naturally but may not be categorizing or recognizing in this way. For example, if we’re talking about the general music classroom, we do do a lot of memory learning at the elementary level from teaching music by rote. If, for example, you were teaching students the song Row, Row, Row Your Boat, you would probably start out by singing a phrase, Row, row, row your boat, and then having the students repeat it back and going through the song piece by piece and then putting larger chunks together until finally they have learned the whole thing. And so this is one strategy of memory learning that some general music teachers employ.

Now if you were going to take that same small melody, Row, Row, Row Your Boat, and apply these other types of learning to it, analytical, even if you’re staying at the elementary level, you can [unintelligible 00:20:08] analytical learning with your students. So once they’re familiar with the melody Row, Row, Row Your Boat, you might add formal accompaniment to it and ask the students to listen [No sound] … going on here. But if you were to sing:
Row, row, row your boat, gently down the stream, merrily, merrily, merrily, merrily, life is but a dream.

You could ask your students to listen for – the change from the dominant to the tonic at, life is a dream. And even young students can hear a change [unintelligible 00:20:50] the beginnings of a music theory background, and it’s analytical learning in music education.

For creative learning there’s endless possibilities in all levels of music, [unintelligible 00:21:00] with the elementary example students could compose a rhythmic ostinato to accompany it, they can improvise, they could write new lyrics: Just get me across the Nile, don’t forget to scream. Or something of that nature. And so there’s lots of creative possibilities in music.

And then finally a practical learning, the best example in music is actually teaching the students notation goes along with the song, that something practical for musicians and so that learning [No sound] from the [unintelligible 00:21:33] [No sound] read [No sound]

Beatrice: Okay, great. So I was just say that practical learning in music education involving the reading of notation and so actually teaching the students how to read Row, Row, Row Your Boat on a staff, the names of the pitches and the rhythms and being able to read that and then possibly transfer it to an instrument, whether it [No sound] a bard percussion instrument or something of that nature.

And so as Sternberg writes, successful intelligence does not mean teaching everything in three ways, which he means the bottom three aside from memory that he says teachers do all the time anyway. Rather it means alternating teaching strategies so that teaching almost every student at least some of the time.
So Sternberg [unintelligible 00:22:37] that we should incorporate many analytical, creative and practical learning [unintelligible 00:22:42] as we can, but not feel stressed to do it with every single listening objective we’re doing. We just need to vary to reach different learners.

Howard Gardner might be someone that is familiar to you. There was a big educational craze that Gardner’s theories in the late ’80s and definitely throughout the 1990s, and his theory of multiple intelligences. And so some of you might remember this from your own schooling or from teaching about how Howard Gardner came to the educational scene.

Well his theory of multiple intelligences at the very beginning began with two: the verbal linguistic and logical mathematical intelligence, but then he expanded I thought to include other things. Facial, bodily kinesthetic, musical, [unintelligible 00:23:28] and interpersonal intelligence.

Eventually his theory involved to include naturalistic intelligence and to some extent an existential intelligence, or having knowledge of one’s self.
And so Gardner developed a criteria for figuring out what constitutes an intelligence, and we’re not going to go through all of them, but the essential elements are that an intelligence is an ability to process certain information in a certain kind of way. It’s computing power or problem solving ability. And it’s not the same thing as a learning style or a societal domain which is basically like a talent being talented in something. So just simply having musical talent does not necessarily mean that the person can problem solve in a musical way.

Now when Gardner identified these – these intelligences and promote his theory he thought it should have educational implications, but he had no intention that multiple intelligence theory should serve as a method for instruction, which is kind of what ended up happening. Everyone thought they needed to teach every single thing according to all of these different intelligences. And that’s not what Gardner’s intention was. It wasn’t supposed to be a prescription for what you should do.

But he did think there should be educational implications in that if the teacher had an opportunity to individualize occasionally, knowing a student’s primary intelligences might really help that teacher. He thought that teachers should plural their instructions, so again, vary their instructional technique to try to tap into the different intelligences when they can, but not to actually teach in all eight different ways with every single concept.
His – in 2011 he wrote that he thinks it’s very important for teachers to not lose sight of the overall educational agenda. We have things going on in our classrooms, especially in music we have a lot of concept preparation, and so we can’t lose sight of that, but we should use multiple intelligences to facilitate what he calls crystallizing experiences. And this is a jumping off point for students. And experience that gets them excited or interested in something. It’s a hook.

And so that’s something very important in music, because we want to interest students so that they will value music and stay involved.

Gardner did write that musical intelligence might be special in that it might prove a rich organizer for other aspects of cognition. So I thought that would be interesting for you all to know. But he thought musical intelligence might be unique in that way. But the overall point for him is that intelligences usually work in combination. People don’t usually have just one, and so you might be strong in some and weak in another so that’s [No sound] for teachers to try different things, but not to worry about reaching every single one every single time.

Kristin: The next strategy, the third strategy that we’re going to talk about involves how – how we can differentiate instruction, which involves some sort of pre-assessment might be a KWL chart or it might be something that you’re already doing in your classroom, and it involves more of the process, not the prescription because there is not one set way of providing instruction to students and it involves more of the how and not that what of the content that you’re teaching.

On perhaps the most well-known person to talk about this is Carol Ann Tomlinson, and she published the first major publication to address differentiated instruction. I highly recommend it. It’s included in our references, that later on [unintelligible 00:27:33] 28, so you might want to drop that down, it’s a good book.

And she believed that learners can arrive at the same destination even though they may take different paths to get there. And like I said, it’s more about the process than the product, and if you think back to our opening screen and the map and we had the keys and the successful teaching and how it leads to student achievement, there is more than one way to get there, and I think that’s a great way to show that.

This is her graphic organizer of how teachers can differentiate, and I’m going to zoom in on the section where it says teachers can differentiate through [No sound] at least I think I am. There we go. Teachers can differentiate through the content and the process and the product. The affect in learning environment – are something that we can help, but today we’re mainly focussing on instruction, which involves the content process and product. But teachers can also differentiate through their affect and learning. And the content is what you’re teaching, the process is about how you’re teaching it, how are you addressing possibly the multiple intelligences or Sternberg strategy and your teaching and how are the students going to show their achievement?

Beatrice: Oh, just piggybacking on what Kristin is saying about differentiating – [unintelligible 00:29:24] are – these are things that you from, like [No sound] a lot in your classrooms now, especially if you’re from Ohio, I know that teachers expected to show on lesson plans or for their students learning objectives or evaluation about how they’re differentiating their instruction. And so knowing those key words about content, process and product might be very useful to you in that way. Especially if you’re having a conversation with an administrator you can verbalize how you want the content to be the same for everyone, but you’re going to differentiate through the process by which you’re teaching and the products that the students can show to demonstrate what they’ve learned.

So not necessarily does every student have to produce the same product in order to show that they know the content.

So now that we’re talking specifically about you and your teaching and the music classroom, let’s bring all of this back together. We’ve talked about three different ways to respect those [No sound]

Moderator: I think we lost you, Beatrice. Beatrice? [No sound] If you’re saying something, we can’t hear you yet. I think it’s the reception. … Beatrice you still there? Kristin can you see if you can …

Kristin: Yeah, I can go on. I can -

Moderator: Okay.

Kristin: A little bit.

Moderator: Until Beatrice comes back. Yeah, okay. Awesome.

Kristin: Beatrice was going to speak about how we can differentiate in the music classroom, and she is a general music teacher so -

Beatrice: I’m back.

Kristin: Oh, there she is.

Moderator: Yeah, oh great.

Beatrice: For some reason it just said to me, call failed, and [unintelligible 00:31:35] there was, like, ominous music in my head when that happens. Like, oh no. It said call failed. And so I really apologize. I’m so sorry, but I was able to dial back in. So thank goodness.

Moderator: All right, awesome. Carry on.

Beatrice: What you were saying, Kristin if you wanted to finish your thought.

Kristin: No, go right ahead. I was just introducing the slide. So you go right ahead.

Beatrice: Oh. Okay, great. So we were talking about cultural relevance before my technological mishap, and how it’s important to make what we’re doing in the classroom relevant to our students’ lives. Now a way that music teachers can do this is through multi-cultural music or popular music or both or other avenues, and not that we’re advocating that everyone’s curriculum should be made up of entirely popular music, of course not. But validating students’ preferences and the ways that they experience music outside of school is a great way that we can connect to them, and connect the other things that we are trying to teach in the classroom. It’s okay to validate the things that our students like and introduce them to other things. And it makes it more relevant to them and connects to their experience.

It’s also important to incorporate student choice and give them a voice as is appropriate in the classroom, so that we can be student-centered rather than director-centred. You might think of a typical ensemble rehearsal as something that involves, you know, practicing and rehearsing through a piece of music, addressing different problems in different areas, perhaps technical problems or expressive things the director wants and the director listens, diagnoses, stops, corrects, asks students to fix it, and then [unintelligible 00:33:28] on.

But having a little student input into that is very important. Why do we need to make these choices? Why am I asking you to do these things? Makes it much more relevant to the student.

The second thing we talked about was varying instructional technique. If you present musical information in a variety of ways, maybe through voice, through instruments, by rote, through notation, lots of different ways to tap into the different ways that students process music. It would be helpful to recognize if [unintelligible 00:34:03] are capable of problem solving or expressing ideas musically. Is this something that is coming natural to students? How can we tap into this? How can we differentiate and provide appropriate stretch for students that this is coming more easily to?

And finally they want to provide opportunity for those crystallizing experiences. The hook that gets students interested and motivated to participate. And so if we vary the way that we teach, it’s much more likely that we can reach more students in the classroom. Students who learn in different ways or have different needs.

And ultimately of course we want to lead to differentiating where we’re working toward common content, whatever that is, common understanding your goals that the teacher has set, and we define different processes we can use to reach that content through different products. Perhaps it’s having a playing test. Perhaps it’s an essay. Perhaps it’s a verbal essay. Perhaps it’s a project. Maybe it’s a composition. There are many, many different products we can employ in our classroom in order to show that our students have achieved.

So ultimately again we want to get to this goal of student achievement, and so respecting the differences through considering their experience, varying our instruction, and ultimately differentiating can help us navigate that path from our teaching to achievement and meet these goals that we talked about at the beginning.

And so Kristin and I put together [No sound] to share with you, and please, please, I know you are musicians, so please pardon the audio quality here, but we thought it would be really fun to write some lyrics to a well-known song, Michael Jackson’s Man in the Mirror, to talk a little bit about differentiation and bring all of this in together. So you’ve been sitting listening to the lecture and now we thought we’d do something, you know, vary our instruction a little and maybe [unintelligible 00:36:13] laugh.

Moderator: Right. Pushing the video [unintelligible 00:36:17] everyone.

Okay. I hope everyone has enjoyed the video that Beatrice and Kristin put together. Beatrice I’m going to hand it back to you.

Beatrice: Well we’d just like to say thank you again for being here with us today. You can see some references there especially the Carol Ann Tomlinson book if you’re looking for practical ideas for differentiation, especially that might appeal to your administrators because they apply to education in general. It’s a very great book, and so we recommend that as well as the rest of these on here, if you’re interested in more information. And thank you very much. We hope you learned a lot about respecting the learner differences in your classroom and we’d love to hear any questions or comments that you have.

Moderator: And I’d just like to remind everyone that you guys can submit your questions in the Q&A box at any time, and we will be – we’ll answer your questions here.

And this – there was a question from before about this webinar and the availability of the slides after the webinar. The webinar is being recorded, or is – yeah, it’s being recorded so the recording will be available after the webinar and Michelle will follow up with you to share the recording, and so don’t worry about that. And even during the recording you are able to submit any questions through this new platform and we will be able to follow up with you a couple of days after that.

So while we wait for some questions and Kristin, I think one of your slides you mentioned that there was a book that the audience should really mark down and maybe take a read. Was that – was that part of the slide in terms of the title of the book?

Kristin: No, the title of the book was not listed on the slide, but it is in the references. I think it’s called Differentiating Instruction. Am I right Beatrice?

Beatrice: I’m checking right now to get the exact title.

Beatrice: I’m trying to see. … I will keep looking. Just give me [unintelligible 00:43:03] we’ll just take a moment.

Moderator: No problem. So while with that and – yeah, I hope everyone enjoyed the webinar. It is – I agree [unintelligible 00:43:14] we do hope that this is refreshing, you know, from any other webinars you’ve been lately, just to get your refresher on different theories and all the different ideas and really helping the students to achieve right?

And then also in the meantime while Beatrice is looking for the book title I wanted to -

Beatrice: Sorry, the Differentiated Classroom.

Moderator: The Differentiated Classroom.

Beatrice: Yes, The Differentiated Classroom, by Carol Ann Tomlinson.

Moderator: I hope everyone got that. Again, this is recorded so – you know [No sound] someone in the audience has asked, have you found that pitch range has lowered in children over the past two decades? I think it’s more a personal question, but I think just speaking if you guys can speak more from your personal experiences teaching, maybe relate that back to how – how you would [No sound] you might have changed your way of teaching because of how the generations now are a little different.

Kristin: Well especially considering the elementary classroom, the pitch range of children, of younger children is much higher than is comfortable for many adults. Now if you were a singer in college it might not be as difficult for you to sing in a range or [unintelligible 00:44:44] that’s not comfortable for children, but for some people it’s a struggle and when classroom teachers that have not been trained in music education attempt to incorporate songs in their classrooms learning things like days of the week or even, you know, prepositions or the names of the 50 states and things like that can help their students, they often sing it in a range that is more comfortable for them rather than is developmentally appropriate for their students’ voices.

And so I think in speaking to the question about the generational difference, because students now have much more access to popular and recorded music, most of which is sung in a range that is comfortable for adults or is largely spoken, I think students are getting used to trying to lower their voices to that pitch range, rather than what developmentally appropriate for them. So that’s something that as music educators we need to combat and talk about you know, this is what’s good for you at this age, and as you get older you know, things will change. But we need to try to accommodate what’s developmentally appropriate for our students and combat that lower pitch change.

Moderator: Thank you.

While we [unintelligible 00:46:11] the questions I was going to say, also just to throw it in there that the … I guess more of a question for Beatrice and Kristin to see if you guys can speak a little bit about how the master’s program have helped you guys as well in terms of learning further in the different theories and different ways of teaching children.

Kristin: It’s definitely changed the way that I’m not practicing teaching. I know that Beatrice is going back to teaching full time in the fall, but it really impacted and required me to think about what I’m teaching, how I’m teaching it and what all can – if I’m teaching a piece of music to my junior high band, what can I teach them from that piece of music? Am I just going to teach them the notes on the page and tell them, you know, play louder here, play softer here, oh, we need to slow down here. Or am I going to have them – allow them to have some sort of voice and give them a sense of musicianship and let them express themselves rather than telling them that it has to be one way or another.

Beatrice: I agree. It’s really helped me to become more student-centered and not entirely turn over your classroom to students of course, because you’re the expert for a reason, but to know that students can contribute in a way that’s meaningful to their learning, and so allowing them to participate in some of the decision making processes within a practical framework. It’s definitely something I’ve learned that has changed my teaching and I think for the better.

Moderator: Was there any class in particular that you might have been more draw into, like maybe the music technology or anything that you could recall?

Kristin: For the master’s degree I enjoyed the music technology course. I think one of the – it was a challenging course for me, but I learned so much from it was the world music course taught by Shahriari. I loved that course. We visited different parts of the world – we didn’t actually really go to visit, but the books took you through these different parts of the world. It talked about the native music of those areas, and that was probably one of my favourite classes.

I also enjoyed I think it was the first class foundation of music education because it was kind of a broad overview of the program basically. Like this is what you’re going to be learning, this is what – it was kind of like your basic introduction into research and music education so I really enjoyed that class.

Beatrice: I agree. Foundations was great and it – you know, it lived up to its name. It provided a great foundation for what you’re going to do in the rest of the class and the paper that I wrote for foundation impacted the way that I teach and has carried with me through the rest of the degree program and then even into my PhD. So it was a very valuable class.

I also got a lot out of the particular methods class that you chose to do and so – or the two. And so the general music one was very great for me. My instructor was [unintelligible 00:49:55] and she was fantastic, and that was also pedagogically a great class for me.

Moderator: Thank you.

Kristin: It was -

Kristin: To get your master’s degree while you were teaching because I would get so excited because I would learn something that night at home reading or working on the computer on Blackboard and I would learn something and I’d get to go try it out on my students the next day and it was great. I think my students really benefited from me getting my master’s degree and being able to share with them what I learned and become a better teacher in the process.

Moderator: Thank you so much.

Beatrice: I agree, and the program is designed for … considering you are teaching. And so while I won’t say that it wasn’t challenging, it was definitely doable, it was practical. I finished the program in I believe it was 20 months, or 21 months and I took all the courses without a break or anything like that in between and it worked out exactly the way it was supposed to. I was teaching the entire time. And so it was very practical. It was a great way to get my master’s and teach at the same time.

Moderator: Thank you. Yeah, I mean I haven’t received any more questions from the audience, but again, everyone who’s still on the call, you guys can re-watch the recording and then if there is any questions while you’re re-watching it you guys can still submit questions, or even afterwards, after this call you realize there’s some questions, feel free to reach out to Michelle or either email her or even book a telephone call with her and ask your questions. It could be about the program, it could be about our presentation today. We can get back in touch with Beatrice and Kristin just to get the answer for you as well.

So, don’t hold back. And again, I want to really thank Kristin and Beatrice for being here, presenting to us yet again. They actually presented to us before and it was also a very great webinar and everyone I really encourage you to also look at that as well. It’s currently on our website, our program website, and they did a presentation on a new way of thinking about curriculum, the three S pedagology a while back, so I encourage everyone to look at that as well through our website and just have another perspective on – on again, the student achievement.

So aside from that let me see. Hold on, let me just go to – let’s see about this … the last slide. So as I was saying, the ways to contact us is on email or telephone or even book a telephone appointment with us directly and you will see that in the little icon below your slides there. And you can do that at any time.

Now Beatrice and Kirstin, do you guys have anything else to say? There is one question that I do – that I hope you guys can actually answer before we wrap up the call, it’s you know, having gone through the master’s program do you find that – how does it differ if you’ve had a BA in music?

Kristin: The – how does it differ from your undergraduate degree? I would say that it’s much more – everything – at least almost everything is much more geared towards actually teaching. It’s much more geared toward pedagogy where as an undergraduate so much of your training is focussed on developing your own personal musicianship, so you have your ensembles and your studio and other kinds of things that you’re participating in and all of your [unintelligible 00:54:04] and theory and history. And while there is some theory and history incorporated into this degree, it’s all through the lens that you’re actually teaching music, so how is that applicable to your daily professional practice? And so that’s the biggest difference for me.

Beatrice: I agree. And my undergraduate degree I always felt that I was trying to fit music education and the college of education and it didn’t necessarily always fit for me. But at the master’s level and especially at the doctoral level it’s much easier to do and we’re looking at music education not the music and education. We’re looking at music education. So there isn’t those moments where you feel that, oh, I have to just fit this lesson into this class, because everything that you’re going to do is going to be meaningful and something that you can take with you to school the next day and use.

Moderator: Yeah, no awesome. Thank you. And like I said, our web page also has not only the other presentation from Beatrice and Kristin there’s also two other video or webinars that are available for viewing at any time. One highlights the [capsule 00:55:27] experience with a graduate of ours from before, and also the capsule coordinator Pat and just to go over really understanding the program and how – how the program can – can also fit into what you want to do in terms of to showcase almost like a masterpiece or – not a masterpiece, but more of a project that you can showcase within your school and also another webinar that we have online is the open forum with Christopher Venesile, who is our program coordinator who will give even more insight as well into the program and some of the key course highlights, just so that you guys have a sense of what the program is about as well.

So I really encourage everyone to look through all those webinars and also re-watch this webinar just for the constant refresh of new ideas afterwards.

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